Since that moment men and yes women too have been admiring the male form and drooling over their fine physiques. Meanwhile hungry Americans were creating a mouth-watering jaw-dropping masterpiece to fill their increasing waists: a half-pound beef burger appropriately named a Beefcake. What better way to combine both fine form and fine food that at Beefcakes Burger Bar. Beefcakes is open from Mon — Sat, Noon till Midnight, Nightly drag shows, Booking essential or capetown beefcakes.
On arrival to the Medieval Night experience guest will be helped by the cavaliers waitrons to a glass of sweet wine or juice and help them to get dressed in the proper medieval gear, they will no longer be known as guests but Lords and ladies. All the lords and ladies will then have a chance to get a drink, mingle before the proceedings starts.
No glasses are allowed. In good faith they will obey and respect the chosen king and queen. Whilst explaining the rules the Jester will make a few jokes and throw the peasants lords and ladies behaving badly or not listening into the dungeon or stocks. When the rules are done starters will be served and the Jester will leave the venue until. The jester will return after starters have been served and then proceed. If there are speeches it is preferred that it is to be done after starters to get all the formal proceedings done as the medieval party is about letting your hair down and enjoying your selves.
After that the King and Queen will have a chance to throw peasants into the dungeons, have them sing songs for them and congratulate Lords and Ladies who have impressed them so far by drowning them in a goblet of wine. We will then move on to main course and it is tradition that before main course is served the king and queen will be entertained by each table performing a song, the table who does this the best will receive main course first.
The Jester will once again leave the court. Once main course is finished the Jester will return and over throw the kingdom so that the dance floor can be opened. Address: Bloemendal Wine Estate, Durbanville. Pigalle has defined itself as the epitome of fine dining in a warm, relaxed and friendly atmosphere.
For bookings: capetown pigallerestaurants. Intimate and enchanting, the show allows the audience to get to know and meet the Kleintjies family whilst giving us an insight into a vigorous cosmopolitan community that thrived at the foot of Table Mountain in District Six. Look no further than Stardust- the unique theatrical dining adventure. Amid serving their tables the scrumptious variety of Mediterranean and North African themed cuisine, you can expect to be amused and delighted by your multi-talented waiters. The singers, dancers, comedians and musicians will take you on a journey of wonder and revelry.
The entertainment begins at Address: Sir Lowry Road, Woodstock. Tel: Hours: Tuesday to Saturday from pm till am. The market is populated by a community of remarkable individuals, all of whom care deeply about the food and drink on offer. Many of the stallholders are themselves producers — people who grow, rear or bake the food that they sell.
Open on Friday: , Saturday and Sunday: From the vivacious colours of local arts and crafts and the delicious scent of freshly baked bread to the melodic tones of an animated guitarist or the festive banter of local traders, the Bay Harbour Market in Hout Bay is an embodiment of creative South African energy and vibrancy. A bustling and busy market, this weekend wonderland of exquisite art, craft, fashion and food is a gathering ground for people of all ages and cultures.
Dress: smart casual. Daily, Price: R per person, R per child under Food and Wine Pairing Menus are going to be a strong feature at Cape Grace in by matching each dish on the Tasting Menu with one of their wines. For bookings call or email signal capegrace. The centre offers a wonderful ambience with open air courtyard and adjacent play gym for the kids to enjoy surrounded by a beautiful new mosaic fountain to relax one and add to the mood bathrooms will soon be upgraded.
Lines and , Woodlands station. These platter options are available daily in Nobu Lounge from 6pm to 8pm and every Thursday, a popular DJ will entertain you. Specials on cocktails and some signature Nobu items will also be available. Seating is limited.
An Afternoon Tea buffet is offered from — daily, at R per person, inclusive of selected teas and coffees. The New Treetop Canopy Walkway In celebration of its Centenary , Kirstenbosch botanical gardens chose to add this spectacular project that would be a unique and permanent feature to the venue. This special walkway is a perfect means to mark the occasion.
It was built purely from bequest money which has been left to Kirstenbosch by numerous donors, but predominantly Mary Mullins. It is also a fantastic opportunity to take people into the treetops, a place with a distinctive ecology that is generally inaccessible. From here people can experience the forest from high above the ground and also see birds and other animals that are generally elusive. One can experience an entirely new world of tree dynamics - how the treetops move in the wind and how the crowns of the trees interact with one another.
The walkway then bursts through and above the canopy, giving you an impression of what it is like to be above the forest. At this point, the walkway provides spectacular degree vistas comprising of Cape Town and the surrounding majestic mountain slopes. Adding to the exceptionality of this modern feature is the fact that the walkway is fully wheelchair accessible.
The design of the walkway is envisaged as a sinuous, lightweight, non-intrusive steel structure, which supports a slatted timber deck, and snakes its way into, through and over the ever-changing tree canopy. On site, the pieces were bolted together and mounted on top of long columns much like a giant mechanic set. The walkway takes advantage of the sloping ground and starts and ends within the arboretum, so there is almost no visual impact from the lawns and walks in the garden.
There are no mechanical or electrical aspects to the walk and the gentle gradients will easily raise visitors to over 11 meters above ground and is about a meters long. There is no extra charge for this added feature. A normal garden entry ticket is all that is required. A place where the creative energy and the vibrancy of South Africa come alive in an old authentic fish factory in a working harbor.
An eclectic stylish wonderland of exquisite art, craft and fashion, complemented by the delicious aromas of food to tempt all the senses. From jiving jazz to awesome acoustic performances, the market comes alive every weekend with eclectic sounds from across the country. The market attracts a wide-ranging audience with a keen interest in all things home-grown, with a consciousness for recycling! It is as much a source for farm fresh as well as organic foods and locally produced specialty goods, as it is a meeting point to enjoy community, swap ideas and stories, and become educated about what we buy and eat by going directly to the source.
The Neighbourgoods Market has been created along ethical, eco-friendly and organic lines, to offer a wide range of products from the extended community of Cape Town. A calendar of seasonal events, specialty festivals, and live music feature throughout the year.
At the OZCF Market customers can do weekly food shopping veg, fruit, bread, organic dairy, free-range eggs, honey, muesli etc , try out some delicious cooked and raw foods and be inspired about helping to build an alternative food system. Additionally, customers can buy edible plants and seedlings, compost and gardening supplies and equipment.
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Educational talks and events are linked to the market and there are plenty of activities for kids such as storytelling, planting, craft, yoga and more. Guided self-harvest on Wednesdays pm and Saturdays 9am to Noon weather permitting. R per person. Served between For bookings: To make a booking contact restaurant reservations on or restaurants 12apostles. Our Sommelier can suggest a perfect wine pairing for each item on the menu all accompanied with live music.
The instaLens collection is, in essence, a range of magnetically attachable lenses for smartphones, representing the latest amalgam of digital and optical photography. Allow them to start your week completely relaxed while the live Jazz band sets the mood. Receive a complimentary Sunday Newspaper and a glass of bubbly on arrival and enjoy anything from eggs, sushi, dessert and loads more from our buffet for R per person.
About an hour drive from town. Slow Quarter aims to pair each of the Darling Brew craft beers with a selection of inspired light meals that enhance the unique flavours found in our artisan beers. All produce used in the making of meals is locally sourced, free range and organic. They also offer a beer and food pairing board at R for those who want something a little different.
Come and see what all the fuss is about at one of our two market locations, visit our website or stalk our instagram feed. Come on board the instaLens bandwagon, and utterly and irrevocably transform your worldly perception — quite literally. We dare you. Beer and biltong lovers can look forward to tasting a selection of beer well-complimented with Kudu, Beef and Springbok biltong. Guest can purchase and enjoy their beer and biltong in the beer garden, while enjoying the spectacular view of the Paarl Winelands and Table Mountain. All DV Artisan Chocolates are hand-crafted and available for tasting on the farm.
The Cape Brewery Company, also known as CBC, is producing and offering a wide range of beers using only the finest ingredients, state of the art equipment and is made by the highly skilled Brewmaster, Wolfgang Koedel. Beer lovers can look forward to viewing facilities where they can follow the entire beer production process and thereafter taste it either on tap or bottled at the tasting stations. Open 7 days a week. Open Mon- Fri , Sat , and Sun www. This decadent treat costs R75 per person and comprises four exquisite cupcakes matched with a specific Delheim wine.
A traditional African Makataan Cupcake festooned with makataan wild melon syrup icing shares the spotlight with the Delheim Chardonnay Sur Lie. It is a superb crowd-pleasing combo with flavours that merge and mellow with subtle sweetness. The tasting ends on decadent high with Pumpkin Cupcake paired with the Delheim Pinotage. This mouthwatering morsel is made with farm grown pumpkin, spiced up with star anise, cinnamon and nutmeg and topped with pickled pumpkin.
Exuding black cherry, plum and red berry fruit backed by dark chocolate and floral notes, the wine peaks at mid-palate and then fades to the rear to allow the distinct flavor of the cupcake to return for the grand finale. To book this tantalising experience for you and your friends contact Delheim Estate at Tel: or send an email to info delheim. Le Roux also offers a selection of mouth-watering meringues and marshmallows to pair with five exquisite J. Le Roux Cap Classique and sparkling wines. Booking Essential. Call The food reflects the creative energy and raw talent of a dedicated staff combined with an abundance of fresh local ingredients.
The restaurant has furthermore been listed by Conde Nast Traveller as one of the top 15 'Best Value' establishments in the world. The restaurant is located on Kleine Zalze, a family owned wine farm that has risen to prominence both in South Africa and internationally thanks in particular to its award-winning Chenin Blanc and Shiraz. The setting, under historic oak trees with views over the De Zalze golf course and surrounding gardens and vineyards, is both refined and relaxed. Lunch: - , Dinner: - Tel: or visit www.
It is named one of the top ten restaurants in South Africa and one of the top restaurants in the world. These richly-deserved accolades are recognition of the magic harmony of flavours and textures that are the hallmark of a truly magnificent dining experience with unsurpassable service and stunning views across the Paarl valley. The KWV Wine Emporium offers sparkling wines, natural wines, fortified wines, liqueurs and brandies, a variety of tasting experiences, and frequent cellar tours conducted in English and German.
Visit the KWV Sensorium and taste a selection of our award-winning wines and brandies while you drink in the beauty of our collection of South African masterpieces. Open: Mon- Sat incl. Stellenbosch is the proud Home of Fleur Du Cap wines, offering wine lovers one of the most rewarding wine experiences in the Cape. A footpath takes you along the banks of the Plankenburg River, where in harvesting season you could see the tipping of red wine grapes. The wine centre is the first of its kind in South Africa and it includes wine sales, wine tastings, a wine-per-glass facility and information centre to promote all the wine producers who are part of Bottelary.
Only wines certified as Wine of Origin Stellenbosch District are for sale at the centre and all the wines on the shelves are tested and approved by a panel. The Bottelary Hills Wine Centre serves as a mouthpiece and source of information of the wines and experiences that the tourists and local wine lovers can enjoy in our part of the Winelands. This unique underground bottle-maturation cellar is the first of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Thousands of bottles of wine are laid down in this tranquil setting, guarded serenely by old French oak maturation casks.
These casks bear carvings of various famous Cape wine landmarks and events. In the world of fine wine, the word Provenance is becoming more important. Simply put, Provenance means origin or source. It is crucial when buying or selling older vintages, that you know where and how the wine has been stored or matured, to ensure that you are able to enjoy the wine in perfect condition.
Make your selections from outstanding brands! Surrounded by vineyards and oak trees in Stellenbosch the Slow Market is a revival of the public marketplace where you can buy food which is grown, raised harvested and transformed by local producers. The market features over specialty suppliers creating a weekly platform for local farmers, grocers, artisan bakers, organic merchants, fine food purveyors , butchers ,artisan crafts, local fashion , craft beers and estate wines.
They support micro businesses to grow and thrive in an alternative retail environment. Founded by medical doctor and entrepreneur in Gail Blake, the market is part of a global Slow Food movement promoting foods which are clean, good and fair. Audacia wines and sumptuous craft beers will put a smile on the face of oenophiles and beer aficionados alike.
Decadent sweet treats, traditional roosterkoek and biltong, healthy salads and sandwiches, wood-fired pizzas, spicy curries and other goodies galore will satisfy any tummy rumblings you incur during your ramblings! Located in Franschhoek, the gourmet capital of South Africa. Our boutique chocolaterie, in the main street of Franschhoek offers a delicious range of chocolates, made from the finest imported Belgian chocolate. Our chocolates are sold loose or beautifully packaged in a variety of attractive boxes. All of our chocolates are hand-crafter by us from the finest imported Belgian dark, milk and white chocolate.
We have an attractive variety of special packaging and chocolate for corporate, special events and weddings.
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Huguenot chocolates are boxed and bagged in attractive and colourful packaging. There are 32 different foil colours and more than 30 different boxes and bags. Join the southern-most elephants in the world at Knysna Elephant Park. Where a resident family of African elephants and world-class guides will unravel the sad and mystical story of the Knysna forest elephants… The Park offers a rare and exciting opportunity to get close to these gentle giants, who live in a controlled, free-range environment in the heart of the famous Garden Route.
Their elephants are orphans rescued from culling operations. They play a vital role in closing the gap between man and animal, allowing us to better understand the plight of the African Elephant and that of their peers in the Knysna Forest. Great white sharks are the apex predators of our oceans and Cape Town is one of the shark cage diving capitals of the world.
Sharks are iconic and magnificent creatures. Experience a great white shark up close and personal with a shark diving or shark viewing tour you. All year round we often encounter Dolphins, Humpback whales and Brydes whales. From July to November the Southern Right whales are plentiful in the bay and you can be assured of a sighting. During the winter months the Great White Sharks are extremely active around the island and we enjoy many sightings and often witness natural predations.
The main breeding season for the Cape Fur Seal is November and December when almost 20 pups are born. The majority of the seals on Duiker Island, out of Hout Bay Harbour, are males waiting out their time until they reach the right breeding age, which is between the ages of 8 to 12 years depending on their size. Duiker Island is not a breeding colony as the sea can get very rough and the pups get swept off.
The island is most densely populated from January through March due to the seals moulting. During this period they do not go off in search of food but rely on fats they have stored in their blubber. The phrase Big Five game was coined by white hunters and refers to the five most difficult animals in Africa to hunt on foot. The collection consists of the lion, African. African Big Five Game Species: African bush elephant Loxodontaafricana : The African elephant is a very large herbivore having thick, almost hairless skin, a long, flexible, prehensile trunk, upper incisors forming long curved tusks of ivory, and large, fan-shaped ears.
There are two distinct species of African elephant: African forest elephant Loxodontacyclotis and the African bush elephant Loxodontaafricana. Black rhinoceros Dicerosbicornis :The black rhinoceros is a large, thick-skinned herbivore having one or two upright horns on the nasal bridge. Rhinoceros may refer to either black or white rhinoceros. African cape buffalo Synceruscaffer : The African or cape buffalo is a large horned bovid.
Buffalo are sometimes reported to kill more people in Africa than any other animal, although the same claim is also made of hippos and crocodiles. It is considered the most dangerous of the Big Five, reportedly causing the most hunter deaths, with wounded animals reported to ambush and attack pursuers. Lion Pantheraleo : The lion is a large carnivorous feline of Africa and northwest India, having a short, tawny coat, a tufted tail, and, in the male, a heavy mane around the neck and shoulders.
A lion may attack without provocation, and is considered by many to be the best of the Big Five.
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Lions habituate the savanna where tall grasses, shrubs and bushes obscure and provide them cover and camouflage. This thick undergrowth is commonly referred to as jess. As lions are ambush hunters, they use this natural cover to stalk close as possible before. Wedged inconspicuously the park, and the mountain, with the city glinting in the distance, Platteklip is an award winning establishment. With well maintained and renovated facilities, guests enjoy a premium establishment in one of the most beautiful regions of this immense park.
For more information, please visit www. ROUND making a final charge to catch their prey. Lions do not generally avoid confrontation, but will usually face the challenger. Lions are unpredictable and may charge when sufficiently annoyed or confronted by danger. Leopard Pantherapardus : The leopard is a large, carnivorous feline having either tawny fur with dark rosette-like markings or black fur.
They are wary of humans and will take flight in the face of danger. The leopard is solitary by nature, and is most active between sunset and sunrise, although it may hunt during the day in some areas. Leopards can be found in the savanna grasslands, brush land and forested areas in Africa. The male leopard is less than half the size of a male lion. The leopard is the smallest of the big cats, and rarely exceeds lb 91 kg.
A visit to a South African reserve will, most likely, allow seeing not only the big 5 but other habitants of the African bush. The Baboon Matters Trust comprises a handful of dedicated volunteers who are at the forefront of baboon conservation in South Africa. The goals of the trust include raising awareness for the plight of baboons as well as education and training so that sustainable solutions can be found for areas of conflict between man and baboon.
On a practical level the trust makes provision for the rescue and care of injured or sick baboons, and aims to support rehabilitation centres that focus their attention on baboons. With a body length of up to cm and a weight from 15 to 31 kg, it is among the largest and heaviest baboon species.
The Chacma is generally dark brown to gray in color, with a patch of rough hair on the nape of its neck. Unlike the northern baboon species the Guinea, Hamadryas, and Olive Baboons , Chacma males do not have a mane. Perhaps the most distinctive feature of this baboon is its long, downward sloping face. Baboons are sexually dimorphic, males being considerably larger than females. Size and color vary within that range. Chacmas usually live in social groups composed of multiple adult males, adult females, and their offspring.
Occasionally, however, very small groups form that include only a single adult male and several adult females. Chacma troops are characterized by a dominance hierarchy. Female ranking within the troop is inherited through the mother and remains quite fixed, while male ranking is tenuous and changes often.
He has authored and co-authored seven books, the latest Biko: A Biography. Reconciling old enemies is a complicated political manoeuvre: a moment of high drama in which small missteps can be catastrophic. Two very different leaders in two very different eras of South African history were called on to embark on this treacherous path. Despite the differences, a close reading of the political efforts of Louis Botha and Nelson Mandela demonstrates surprising similarities. Even more illuminating, Botha was involved in a fascinating argument with his old friend Jan Smuts in Paris in prior to the Versailles peace accord: the topic, reconciliation.
Is there a secret to reconciliation? If so, do these episodes reveal anything about that secret? Tim Cohen looks at how Louis Botha and Nelson Mandela managed the transitions they were overseeing — and how both suffered the backlash.
Is reconciliation even possible? Die lewe en politiek van Hendrik Verwoerd, vars beskou deur die gerekende historikus Hermann Giliomee. Anders as om bloot te veroordeel, probeer Giliomee verstaan en verklaar. Tog ontken hy nie die dikwels tragiese impak van Verwoerd se besluite nie.
Hy gaan skool op Porterville en studeer Geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Hy werk daarna by die Departement van Buitelandse Sake en gee ook klas aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Van tot was hy president van die Suid-Afrikaanse Instituut vir Rasseaangeleenthe de. Hermann Giliomee is die skrywer van verskeie geskiedkundige en politieke publiasies. In verskyn The Afrikaners — Biography of a people en dit is ook in Amerika en Engeland uitgegee.
Hy ontvang in die Helgaard Steyn-prys vir letterkunde vir Die Afrikaners. Politieke straatgevegte is aan die orde van die dag en leiers skiet klaaglik te kort. Jan-Jan Joubert, bekende politieke ontleder, betoog dat hoewel die land se puberteit nie sonder storm en drang is nie, alles nie net bleek lyk nie. Jan-Jan Joubert is die politieke redakteur van die Johannesburgse dagblad Beeld. Dis stiller, veiliger … en verveliger? Onwillige Voortrekkers is wat Fred de Vries die 21ste eeuse Afrikaners noem wat hulle oorsee gevestig het.
Hoe ervaar hulle die lewe in Perth of Melbourne? Is dit nie net sissies of verraaiers wat die hasepad kies nie? Fred gesels o. In Melbourne kuier hy by die filosoof Johann Rossouw, wat uiteindelik tog huistoe kom. Ander boeke op sy kerfstok sluit in Respect: rappen in Fort Europa en Club Risik: de jaren tachtig toen en nu. The interdict is supported by about branch members from the four regions of the province, who say that the nomination process was unlawful. A lack of response from the ANC and the fact that the party was not represented in court were the main reasons the matter could not be heard urgently on Tuesday.
In addition, he interprets the archaeological data by means of his concept of "rites of terror", the central theoretical issue in one of his earlier monographs on Melanesian initiation p Perhaps a little too perfectly! On closer scrutiny, material data from the site often are simply juxtaposed to Whitehouse's key concepts. Two chapters explore further Hodder's house-based society. The text presented by Maurice Bloch London School of Economics, Anthropology is a real treat, and not just in terms of its literary qualities.
Drawing from one of his classic monographs, he presents the outline of a culture theory suited to the analysis of ritual behaviour in housebased societies. The wild cattle installations and the associated remains of feasting and sacrifices on the site, Bloch suggests tentatively, could be explained in terms of the hunters' efforts to revivify or reanimate the transcendental. Like Whitehouse, Bloch refutes old semiotics in favour of a human agency-based understanding of symbols, rituals and the transcendental.
The chapter by Peter Pels Leiden, Social and Behavioural Science and Hodder, in which the authors report on a detailed quantitative analysis of the physical features of the houses, is the odd one out in this volume. The discussion of this numerical data, elaborate and critical as it may be, makes for dense reading and is certainly not meant for a general readership.
The three remaining contributions relate to the tempting but also challenging task of tracing back elements of an ancient cosmology on the site. The project of Carolyn Nakamura Stanford, Archaeology involves an analysis of the so-called cluster deposits which were found on the site. A number of interesting hypotheses are put forward, all of which, in one way or another, explore and confirm the key analytical concepts and premises put forward by Hodder in The Leopard's Tale.
The contribution by Webb Keane Michigan, Anthropology constitutes the most authentic essay of the volume. It is well argued, well structured, lucid and above all unpretentious. His objective is to propose a heuristics for the study of prehistoric religion. It is suggested that marked and hidden features in the houses e. Finally, the contribution by Paul K. Wason Templeton Foundation, Pennsylvania to define a Neolithic cosmology, I believe, is symptomatic of the general lack of critical engagement with Hodder's arguments, which cripples this volume.
In the concluding chapter, the editor defines the role of religious phenomena in the origins and growth of complex societies in terms of the so-called "entanglement" of its inhabitants. Hodder speculates that the people of this early town created ever growing social, material and spiritual investments, dependencies and networks. This created a new sense of time, place, self and most importantly, of agency. From this social transformation, it is proposed, advanced forms of farming, urbanism and political hierarchy would eventually emerge, as a kind of by-product or unintended effect.
Interestingly, Hodder is greatly indebted for the ideological substance of this hypothesis, to the study of eithteenth-century individualism by the historical archaeologist James Deetz. The one social issue that is conspicuously absent in the analytical efforts of this otherwise exciting book, is gender relations.
This is, in my opinion, contradicted by the intensity and overwhelming visual references to hunting in the houses, which could be interpreted as expressions of masculinity or male identity. Towards the final phase of the Neolithic occupation the hunting of wild cattle, together with its symbolic representation in the houses, mysteriously came to an end. Intriguingly, in the same period material references to the realm of women become more obvious. These and similar observations which seem to suggest some form of gender conflict or tension, are clearly ignored by Hodder.
This was first suggested by G. Wiley and P. Careful historical analysis reveals hidden layer. Popular Politics in the History of South Africa is an ambitious book by any standard. Landau sets out to cover years of South African history in pages of text, and the reader may be forgiven for feeling some initial apprehension at the plausibility of such an undertaking. But such fears are short lived.
The book leaves you with a feeling that you have just experienced privileged access to a previously hidden layer of historical analysis. It is grounded in detailed narrative and yet demonstrative of the ways in which the "big picture", as we know it today, has been carved out over the centuries. Landau makes two central arguments, both of which are controversial and will surely force a wider rethink of historical and anthropological scholarship in the region. Firstly, the main thesis of the book contends that the people living in pre-colonial South Africa were devoid of "tribal" allegiance.
The second assertion, clearly connected to the main argument, is that there was no "religion" on the Highveld to speak of until the missionaries brought it there. I will deal with each in turn. The idea that tribalism was "invented" is, of course, hardly novel ground for historians of southern Africa. Landau defines membership of a tribe as a "primary, inalienable birthright, uniting culture and blood, and providing a total blueprint for behaviour, necessarily diminished by 'civilisation'" p This "total blueprint", he argues, emerged in the Highveld along with encroaching colonial influence in the period after c.
Much of the book is devoted to developing the argument that c. Here he makes a clear distinction between "political terrain" the pre-colonial mixing and splitting of groups, or "houses" , and "tribal" identities - concocted by Europeans and eventually internalised by Africans. Echoing Cooper, Landau reminds us that "Europeans always thought in terms of tribes The focus on amalgamation as opposed to tribal particularity is evidenced by a sustained analytical focus on and around the settlement of Thaba Nchu some kilometres north of present-day East London , and the shifting centres of power and fluctuating loyalties brought about by the slow encroachment of colonial rule and missionary activity.
Landau draws on an impressive array of sources to back up his claims. Among them, schoolboy essays from the s and court hearings make for particularly interesting analysis, but perhaps the most convincing and innovative source used throughout the book, at times almost in passing, is Landau's astute use of language.
For example, in tracing the origin of the term Tswana, we learn that it most likely came from a variety of words uttered to European travellers with the broad meanings that "we are the same", "blended together" or "similar" - from the reciprocal - ana pp From the mundane phrase "yes, we are the same" tshwana , Landau argues, Europeans created the "the Sichuana language", which today we associate with "the Tswana" people. But at the time of early contact, the language was spoken over a vast geographical area spanning north of the Limpopo, by people who practised - by and large - similar ways of life.
Tribalisation, then, happened towards the end of the timeframe covered in the book, and by the end of the s Highveld people were "being tribalised" in a variety of ways and in specific sites: in mission stations and on Boer farms. A fundamentally important catalyst in this process was the profound change in social and cosmological structures wrought through the mass movement of people from peasant existences, agrarian freedom and warring chiefdoms towards rural proletarianisation and external administration p Tribal allegiances were "born denying the circumstances of their own generation and protesting their imminent demise.
They were taken up by Africans suffering territorial conquest and enserfment, because they were what was left over" p The second main argument made in the book relates to religion. No religious system or spiritual domain can be postulated before missionaries introduced these ideas themselves" p Chiefs were said to be god-like figures, with the power to make rain, but the idea of a distant God did not exist.
The evidence presented in support of these claims is perhaps less persuasive than for the previous argument, but it is by no means completely unconvincing. Again, Landau turns to an analysis of language, using Ludwig Wittgenstein to elaborate on the meaning of words.
The term "it's raining", for example, may be thought to have universal application. Consider however, what it means if it is understood that someone the chief has made the rain fall. Rain, in this context, is a vindication of chiefly power and a direct justification of his divinity.
Missionaries, Landau argues, were convinced that they possessed divine truths, stable meanings which all non-believers had yet correctly to grasp. And then he erased his tracks. Ancestors would eventually be said to have always meant god, just as 'rain' pula, go na was said to always have meant precipitation" p Pioneering anthropologists, such as Isaac Schapera and others in the early to mid s, commented on their surprise that ancestor worship and "traditional religion" seemed to have largely disappeared. Landau postulates that it never actually existed in the first place, but that the set of ideas we know today as "traditional religion" gradually developed in relation to the ways in which missionaries translated - and miss-translated - the ritual practices they encountered and the Christian concepts at the centre of their endeavour to save lost souls.
This is an interesting proposition, but one is left with the feeling that more evidence could have been presented in its defence. Nonetheless, in conjunction with the main argument of the book, it works. Traditional religion and "tribal" allegiances may be taken for granted today, but Landau wants to show us how they came to be in the first place. This is a timely contribution to wider South Africa politics. In recent years, the South African government has been at pains to identify tribal leaders through the Nhlapo Commission. With the ostensible aims of "correcting historical wrongs", deposing chiefs and kings who were put in place by previous regimes and replacing them with their rightful incumbents, the Nhlapo Commission has acted to re-tribalise the South African political and social landscapes in profound ways.
The dominance of certain groups has been confirmed, and others - such as Shangaan - have been left to deal with the ruling that they have no claim to kingship within South African borders. The commission reignited historical rivalries, but perhaps more than anything demonstrated that chiefly authority has been well and truly trumped by state power. The state decides who will be king, and then pays them royally for the privilege.
In this wider context, Landau's contribution should serve as a reminder that there is nothing "natural" about the groupings which dominate our common-sensical understandings of South Africa's people or its past. Academic discussion on the current obsession with re-tribalisation on these shores and beyond - and particularly the ways in which culture and tradition have been commodified - must be rooted in careful historical analyses such as this one, lest we forget that in the end, we all have much more in common than we have been led to believe.
Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein. Cobus Ferreira is een van Suid-Afrika se toonaangewende kultuurhistorici; trouens, daar kan beweer word dat hy inderdaad die mees hoogaangeskrewe kultuurhistorikus is wat Suid-Afrika die afgelope twee dekades of langer opgelewer het. Sedert sy aftrede by die Universiteit van Pretoria gaan hy voort om navorsing te doen en die een belangwekkende publikasie na die ander die lig te laat sien.
Die boek is betreklik klein: slegs bladsye wat teks en illustrasies bevat altesaam 96 sketse, ander tekeninge, en ou en nuwe foto's - insluitende 'n hele aantal wat spesiaal vir hierdie boek geneem is. Daar is ook drie toepaslike karate; 'n bylae wat al Mosambiek-eiland se gesaghebbers van tot aandui ; 'n bronnelys pp en 'n handige register pp Die inhoud is keurig versorg en die publikasie is pragtig uitgegee. Nadat hy oor die jare heen 'n groot verskeidenheid Suid-Afrikaanse kultuurhistoriese temas ontgin het, doen Cobus Ferreira reeds die afgelope ongeveer 20 jaar navorsing oor die verhoudinge tussen suidelike Afrika en Portugal.
Hy struktureer sy studie aan die hand van drie hoofstukke, elk met talle onderafdelings. In Hoofstuk I verduidelik hy waarom en op welke wyse die Portugese Mosambiek-eiland beset en gekolonialiseer het. Die geskiedenis van die eiland en eilandbewoners vanaf die sewentiende tot die twintigste eeu word ontleed, en daar word onder meer gefokus op die rol van slawerny asook die godsdienstige en sosiale lewe van die eilandbewoners. Die verhaal wat hy vertel en hy vertel dit met kenmerkende entoesiasme , is sowel dramaties as aangrypend, en werp nuwe lig op Portugees-Nederlandse verhoudinge en die verloop van die geskiedenis van suidelike Afrika.
Hopelik sal hierdie puik studie deur 'n wye gehoor gelees word. Ideaal gesproke behoort die teks ook in Engels en Portugees vertaal te word om Cobus Ferreira se navorsingsbevindinge nog wyer bekend te stel. Engrossing example of the new narrative history. Roger Levine's biography of Jan Tzatoe, Xhosa chief and missionary, is a welcome addition to the growing canon of biographies of African intellectuals emanating from southern African historical studies in recent months. In this work, the story and the style of story-telling are inseparable; together they provide a valuable glimpse into the possibilities of history writing which are more engaging, and perhaps even more entertaining, than traditional history writing methods.
For this Levine should be commended. From the outset, the author is candid about what he hopes to achieve by employing the "new narrative history" style: to tell a compelling story, grounded in historical facts, while asking thought-provoking, though unanswerable, questions which create empathy with the personal life experiences and endeavours of Tzatoe in the reader's mind p 5. The unusual use of the present tense serves well to evade the "fatalism" of the past tense, especially when writing a biography.
By employing the present tense, Tzatoe's life appears to be "unfolding before the reader", subtly debunking the often pervasive hindrance of hindsight and a knowledge of what befell Tzatoe in his later years, affording the reader an opportunity to appreciate in a very real sense the "multiple possibilities" of the moment for Tzatoe in his constantly changing, perpetual present p 5. The appeal of this technique is certainly facilitated by a life such as Jan Tzatoe's. Born in about on the Eastern Cape frontier to a Xhosa father and a Khoikhoi mother, Tzatoe was both an observer of and a participant in the wellresearched colonial encounter which unfolded on this frontier during the first half of the nineteenth century.
His mixed ancestry became a defining, symbolic feature of his life, because he went on to fulfil multiple roles in both Xhosa and colonial society: chief and missionary; diplomat and evangelist; intermediary and ambassador.
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Tzatoe's interstitial status as both a Xhosa Chief of the amaNtinde and a prominent African missionary of the London Missionary Society LMS , lends itself credibly to challenging sweeping, oversimplified characterisations of individuals within the Eastern Cape colonial setting during the early nineteenth century.
Nonetheless, how representative can a life as exceptional as Tzatoe's be? This is not a question which Levine shies away from p 2 and the challenge which all micro-historians face - that of whether individual life experiences can reveal deeper understandings of the periods, societies, mentalities, etc.
And yet, while focusing on the life and times of such an extraordinary Cape character, Levine's biography consistently highlights themes of significance which transcend Tzatoe; themes pertaining to contests of selfidentification which, within the colonial context, occurred alongside much broader political, economic and socio-cultural contests. In doing so, the expected biographical emphasis on one life has been sufficiently grounded in the historical milieu of its living and amply tied to pertinent topics such as the invention of the self; the advance of the frontier; and the participation of the colonised in the creation of the colony, amongst others.
Tzatoe's life was inimitable in a variety of ways; the opportunities open to him were not open to the vast majority of his Xhosa kinsmen and yet the representative nature of an individual life need not determine its value or its legitimacy as a subject of a historical work, for subjects on the margins of the norm are often the most intriguing. Still, there is the temptation to make much broader arguments and apply them to a much wider group than a biography actually warrants.
On this point, A Living Man from Africa can be criticised for reaching too far. Levine acknowledges that Tzatoe's life is "unique in southern African history in both the multiple roles he played and the fact that his life was lived and recorded in the multiple arenas of the eastern Cape, Cape Town, and Great Britain" p As such, to also argue that his "life and voice provide a new prism though which to view the colonial encounter", appears somewhat contradictory p 4.
Few others occupied such a place of prestige among the supporters and agents of the humanitarian evangelical mission in the Cape Colony. When Tzatoe's trip to the British Isles between and is taken into account pp , the exceptional tone to his life is re-emphasised. Having had the opportunity to speak directly to metropolitan audiences - Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton's Select Committee on Aborigines; a packed Exeter Hall; and well-attended church meetings up and down Britain - Tzatoe both blazed a trail and left a paper trail that was unmatched for an African colonial subject of his time.
Given this, Levine's claims to the plural relevance of themes exemplified in Tzatoe's life to broader Xhosa-colonial encounters seem dubious. For instance, he suggests that "[t]his period featured an unprecedented number of possibilities from which Africans could create, or indeed invent, many possible selves", exposing "the inadequacy of the Manichean dichotomies of resister or assimilator, pagan or Christian, barbaric or civilized Tzatoe's exceptional life may lend itself well to an engrossing biography, but it is questionable whether it lends itself to the personification of "the hybrid nature of the new selves" that were "being fashioned in the interstitial and highly contingent space created by the colonial encounter in South Africa" p 3.
Certainly the s marked the zenith of the imperial influence of the evangelical humanitarians, however as Tzatoe's life testifies, the following decade saw a rapid erosion of their collective clout. The settler vilification of Tzatoe during the War of the Axe of , amid allegations about his decision to join Sandile's forces in the attack on Fort Peddie, points towards pent up prejudice against intermediaries of his kind p While settler society at the Cape was yet to entrench its land and labour interests along the eastern Cape frontier, this war served to harden racialised sentiments that were already well developed and actively disseminated in the settler press.
By presenting the successes of the missionary agenda as they unfolded during the s, moment by moment, the long-term failures of the evangelical humanitarian lobby are lost sight of. As a result, Tzatoe's agency in forging a life's path distinct from the already deep-rooted norm for Africans in the process of being colonised has been exaggerated.
Indeed, it is only in the aftermath of the War of the Axe, when Tzatoe loses his home and many of his prized possessions, that his "personal fate" for the first time, legitimately "mirrors that of his country and countrymen" p The inherent paradox within the evangelical humanitarian mission: the reality that "African adherents [had] to come to terms with the underlying paternalism and European cultural chauvinism of the missionaries and their liberal supporters" p 80 , is not adequately fleshed out in the early chapters.
Levine only deals with this theme in any depth following the War of the Axe. Yet, surely Tzatoe would have already had "ample opportunity to question why he [was] not being treated as an equal in the religious, political and social realm" p 80 , as opposed to only doing so from onwards. His decision to join the amaNtinde in Sandile's attack on the colony was no doubt owing to his own pent up disillusionment with the "benefits" of assimilation. Limited opportunities for alternative, more advantageous, outcomes in the Cape colonial milieu were the standard during the early nineteenth century, becoming more limited from the mids.
While the author's intention is to avoid rescuing his African subject "from posterity", and to resist affording him "a compelling amount of historical 'agency' in the historical setting in which [his] life was lived" p 3 , Levine has actually confirmed that this is easier said than done for the biographer.
Nonetheless, the author should be acknowledged for being open and honest about his own inspiration in writing this biography of Jan Tzatoe. All three lives evoke a sense of displacement and the complex processes of selfidentification which accompany it. His final words are: "I linger with a living man from Africa", alluding to the phrase by which Tzatoe referred to himself in his address in to the Secession Church in Kelso, Scotland p 7.
This may be unnecessary, or even misplaced, romanticism for an academic work. If so, it is certainly not the only unnecessary feature of the biography. The continual dependence upon metaphorical prose "to tell a good story" becomes cumbersome or peculiar at different intervals. To illustrate the former, Levine's metaphorical description of the intertwined upbringings of Jan Tzatoe and James Read junior reads as follows: "two trees born of the same soil, growing so close at first as to appear as one, but then splitting apart and separately seeking the nourishment of sun, rain, and earth, their branches inscribing different silhouettes against the sky, their roots burrowing in different directions for security and sustenance" p One of many examples of the latter relates to Chief Ngqika's visit to the Kat River Mission in "the chief probes the institution as an anteater does an anthill with a quick thrust of the tongue here, a sustained, determined prod there" p However, if the traditional boundaries of an academic historical study are shifted, just slightly, and Levine's romanticism is appreciated for the flair it provides to a work which tells a most intriguing story; a story grounded in historical facts, with a healthy dose of historical imagination to inspire worthy, though unanswerable questions, and in which he subtly identifies with his subject, then there's much to praise.
After all, as Lucien Febvre famously said: "There is no history, there are only historians". For example, H. On the techniques of the "new narrative history", see R. Deeglike streeksgeskiedenis 'n waardige bydrae. Dit is geensins 'n verrassing dat 'n nuwe boek oor die Namibiese geskiedenis uit die pen van professor Ernst Stals verskyn nie. Hy is veral bekend vir sy groots-opgesette studies oor Die Aanraking tussen Blankes en Ovambo's in Suidwes-Afrika, ; Kurt Streitwolf: Sy Werk in Suidwes-Afrika, ; en Duits-Suidwes-Afrika na die Groot Opstande , terwyl hy ook 'n groot diens aan die historiese gemeenskap bewys het met sy deeglike uitgawe van die belangrike Palgrave-dokumente vir die Van Riebeeck-vereniging Verder is verskeie nuttige nagraadse verhandelinge en proefskrifte oor verskillende aspekte van die Namibiese geskiedenis ook onder sy bekwame studieleiding voltooi.
Hierdie lywige boek bestaan uit 29 meestal korterige hoofstukke gevolg deur twee bylaes. Een van die verblydendste aspekte van die werk is dat Stals deeglik gebruik maak van visuele evidensie en die teks is dan ook ryklik van foto's voorsien. Helaas bevat die boek nie 'n lys van al die foto's wat in die teks opgeneem is nie, wat hierdie baie nuttige bron van historiese inligting wat mens byvoorbeeld in onderrig sou kan gebruik dus ietwat minder bruikbaar maak.
Die boek bevat ook 'n deeglike naamregister en 'n uitgebreide bronnelys. Protea Boekhuis moet weer eens gelukgewens word met 'n goed-versorgde en stewige publikasie. Die Karasstreek het in die loop van 'n eeu 'n groot verskeidenheid nuwe bewoners gekry met verskillende etniese, kulturele en ekonomiese agtergronde. Basies kan die negentiendeeeuse geskiedenis van hierdie streek opgesom word as 'n telkens veranderende dinamika soos wat nuwe rolspelers intrek en bydra tot die kompleksiteit van die samelewing.
Die koms van die Oorlams met hul kommando-strukture wat perde, gewere en ammunisie vereis het en hul afhanklikheid van Westerse gebruiksartikels het weer gelei tot die binnekoms van handelaars wat vanaf die 's die Karasstreek op verskeie maniere ekonomies ontgin het. Dit het weer gelei tot die toetrede van groot sindikate - soos die Kharaskhoma-maatskappy - wat mineraal- en grondregte bekom het en teen die 's belangrike rolspelers in die gebied geword het. Die voorafgaande verteenwoordig 'n opsomming van 'n geweldig komplekse proses wat Stals soms in groot detail en met afwisselende mate van sukses behandel.
Stals verskaf, verbasend genoeg, geen sistematiese bespreking van die rol van die sendelinge nie, en waardeer dus nie genoegsaam die verband tussen die trek van die Oorlams, die werksaamhede van die sendelinge en die koms van handelaars nie. Die grootste deel van die boek, vanaf hoofstuk 11, behandel die 's in groot detail en dek 'n verskeidenheid van onderwerpe. Dit is duidelik dat Stals meer tuis is met hierdie materiaal, wat op uiters deeglike navorsing in die Duitse regeringsdokumente in die Nasionale Argief te Windhoek berus. Hoofstukke beskryf, in die fynste besonderhede, die toenemende intrek van boere vanuit die Kaapkolonie en elders na die Karasstreek, hoe hulle hul plase bekom het, wat hul onderlinge struwelinge was en vertel met smaak die verhale van "swendelaars" soos Willem Spangenberg en Scotty Smith hoofstukke 12 en Dit word gevolg deur 'n bespreking van die rol van sindikate, die vestiging van die Duitse koloniale mag in die streek, en die onderlinge verhoudinge tussen die sindikate, die regering en die plaaslike bevolking hoofstukke Hiermee verrig Stals voorwaar baanbrekerswerk, en dit is daarom teleurstellend dat veral die laaste hoofstuk nie meer gedetailleerd is nie, des te meer omdat daar nuttige studies bestaan oor die bydrae van sendelinge tot onderwys en godsdiens.
Die laaste hoofstuk van die boek bespreek hoe die verskillende groepe - die Nama, blanke boere en Duitse amptenary - mekaar beskou het en bevat etlike interessante uittreksels in hierdie verband uit die bronnemateriaal. Dit is moeilik om die waarde van hierdie werk te beoordeel. Enige historikus met ondervinding van argivale navorsing kan goed waardeer hoe deeglik en toegewyd Stals se empiriese navorsing in verskeie argiewe was naas nog 'n groot aantal mondelinge onderhoude en ondersoek ter plaatse. Ten spyte van my bewondering vir die skrywer se toewyding, ywer en kundigheid, is ek tog ietwat teleurgesteld met die boek.
Daar is 'n mate van onduidelikheid van fokus en die groot hoeveelheid materiaal kon beter georganiseerd gewees het so byvoorbeeld word die rol van Theophilus Hahn in hoofstukke 7 en 20 bespreek, en die verhaal van die Basters by Mier in hoofstukke 9 en Dit is waarskynlik die gevolg van 'n onsekerheid oor wie die eintlike gehoor van die boek behoort te wees. Stals is wel deeglik bewus van die groter kwessies oor kolonisasie wat Namibiese historici van hierdie era debatteer, maar hy beweer dat sy studie "nie ambisieus en pretensieus genoeg" is om daarmee om te gaan nie pp Laasgenoemde aspek sluit aan by 'n verdere teleurstelling: ek vind die werk taamlik blank- of Eurosentries, wat juis vir hierdie streek 'n vertrekkende beeld skep.
Die fokus van die boek val meestal op die blanke handelaars, boere en amptenare wat in die tweede helfte van die eeu opgedaag het. Die plaaslike bevolking tree net te voorskyn wanneer hulle in kontak kom met hierdie mense. Daarby is dit opvallend hoe relatief min aandag Stals skenk aan die Nama en Oorlams en die rol van die sendelinge - iets soos hoofstuk 3 sou baie gebaat het by 'n nouer omgang met die werk van historici soos Brigitte Lau, Tilman Dedering en Nigel Penn. En miskien gebeur dit binnekort? Dit verteenwoordig 'n waardige bydrae tot die belangwekkende Namibiese oeuvre wat Ernst Stals oor baie jare geskep het.
Stals het alreeds 'n paar jaar gelede begin om die geskiedenis van hierdie streek te ontgin in die werk wat hy saam met die historiese taalkundige, Fritz Ponelis, gedoen het: E. Stals en F. Wallace, A History of Namibia: from the Beginning to Jacana, Johannesburg, is 'n heldhaftige poging om dit te doen vir die hele land se geskiedenis, maar sy bespreek die negentiende-eeuse geskiedenis van hierdie streek in slegs een hoofstuk van omtrent 30 bladsye.
Of late, much of his research energy has gone into publications on the history of the South African National Defence Force. With this publication, however, he returns to the Anglo-Boer War to update a source publication that first saw the light of day in under the title, Suid-Afrikaanse Verhandelinge en Proefskrifte oor die Geskiedenis van die Anglo-Boereoorlog: 'n Bronnestudie. Much has happened in terms of postgraduate research work on the Anglo-Boer War since then, both in South Africa and in other parts of the world.
Wessels has, in this publication, taken cognisance of this and with the help of a large number of individuals as listed on p 11 , he has tracked down postgraduate work done at Masters and Doctoral level, both nationally and internationally. This list is supplemented with the provision of similar details for postgraduate studies which relate, albeit indirectly at times, to the Anglo-Boer War. At a glance readers and scholars can determine what has been done at postgraduate level on the war and they are able to gain an overview of how the scholarship and historiography on the war has evolved.
It provides an extremely useful research tool for postgraduate work on the war and its era. However, the publication does have its shortcomings. The use of the phrase "proper theses on the Anglo-Boer War" as a designation for theses dealing exclusively with the war strikes a jarring note. Does this imply that there are "improper" postgraduate studies on the topic? The biggest problem, however, lies with the attempts to do a quantitative analysis of postgraduate dissertations and theses by using the titles themselves as the means of analysis.
Allocating percentages to certain themes does little more than disclose the bigger picture that was generally speaking already apparent elsewhere in the publication. It would have been more useful to shed light, for example, on why the Anglo-Boer War is as popular a topic among postgraduate students in Canada and New Zealand as it is in Britain; or what proportion of South African students choose to do postgraduate work on the Anglo-Boer War at overseas universities.
What trends and tendencies have there been over time in postgraduate work related to the war? Unfortunately these issues were not addressed. Nevertheless, the "raw data" provided in this publication does provide postgraduate students with an indication of where there are still gaps in our knowledge and what questions still require in-depth qualitative analysis.
These shortcomings are, however, dwarfed by the real value of A Century of Postgraduate Anglo-Boer War Studies as outlined above. As such, this publication is a real necessity for the History section of any research library and for all scholars of the Anglo-Boer War. Impressive, balanced account of the South African War. The centenary of the South African War of still more widely known as the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa stimulated a spate of publications amongst which Bill Nasson's general overview of that war was especially useful.
Now, a decade later, he has revised and extensively re-written his account to include the recent literature and preoccupations of historians, and he also contributes a new, original title of which Milner would have approved! To this new book he also brings a certain present-mindedness, finding "plenty of comparative historical resonance" not only with the American Civil War but also with more recent conflicts in the Falklands, Iraq and Afghanistan.
Thomas Pakenham's best-selling account of this war now seems rather dated, in more ways than its title, although for detailed coverage of the military history it has yet to be surpassed. Nasson's new book carries its impressive scholarship lightly; it is up to date and engagingly written with his characteristic love of irony.
It includes a select guide to further reading and an interesting collection of photographs. This is the paperback account to put into the hands of anyone interested in the war. Nasson has trawled widely and imaginatively in the vast published literature - including newspapers - about this war, in both Afrikaans and English, and includes some fresh unpublished material, especially from participants, which he has unearthed in local and regimental archives in England.
Yet this is by no means a British-led account of the war, as so many are; the focus of the book is consistently on the situation in South Africa and a very balanced treatment is given to both sides during the conflict. In tackling crisply and cogently "the historiographical Mt Everest" of the causes of the war, Nasson agrees with most others who have written recently on the subject that whilst Britain certainly provoked the war, it was not simply the result of the machinations of prominent individuals.
As Tony Hopkins has nicely put it: "Although Milner helped to stir the pot, he did not supply the ingredients". The British did not go to war for gold but the war was certainly about gold's overarching effects. Nasson writes:. By this required what today we would call a "regime change" in Kruger's Transvaal republic. A certain weariness with the actual fighting is detectable in some of the recent writing about this war, but Bill Nasson knows his military onions and gives clear and succinct coverage not only to the main military deployments, statistics, engagements, reverses and advances of this war but also to the "scatter of skirmishes" which continued throughout the "hide and seek" warfare which continued after Lord Roberts had "annexed a country without conquering it" in In an account which has some fresh and incisive things to say about the Boer war effort, the work of Taffy Shearing and Rodney Constantine on the descent into banditry of increasingly isolated and fragmented commando units in the eastern Cape during the later stages of the war, and the open hostility towards them of the Cape Afrikaner farmers on whom they preyed, might have merited some coverage.
So too Maritz's attack on Leliefontein; and the account given of Smuts's expedition to O'kiep and Reitz's shocked encounter with the remnants of Botha's "starving, ragged men" in the eastern Transvaal.
Fransjohan Pretorius's Life on Commando during the Anglo-Boer War, remains the fullest account of its subject. Another invaluable work is Albert Grundlingh's pioneering study of Boer collaborators that is now available in English translation thanks to the excellent Protea Book House, which has done so much to make work in Afrikaans available to a wider readership. Nasson gives again a very balanced treatment of the role of blacks on both sides during the war though little attention is given to their local conflicts, some of them with each other as revealed by Bernard Mbenga Kgatla , Manelisi Genge Swazi and Brian Willan Barolong.
As Nasson has written elsewhere, out of the war between Britain and the two Boer republics there developed "a desperate, undeclared civil war between rural whites and rural blacks". Many Africans, especially within and on the borders of the republics - such as the Kgatla, Pedi, Venda, Swazi and Zulu - were fighting their own wars, over massive expropriations of land and cattle by Boer farmers within living memory. Many of these local conflicts were not created by the arrival of the British army in South Africa.
They were there already, home-grown and internally-generated out of the recent South African past. The outbreak of war created a situation in which some of the conflicts endemic within South Africa flared into open warfare and became part of the Boer-British struggle. This aspect of the war is still neglected in a historiography which has always found it easier to settle for a nationalist narrative of "victimhood" and "shared suffering" at the hands of British imperialists.