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It is said that on a coin of the Emperor Hadrian with the legend Restitutori Galliae there is a female figure holding a fleur de lis in her hand. Fragment of a reliquary cloth. Silk twill.

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Iranian, 3rd - 4th century AD. Aachen, Cathedral treasure. On this cloth pairs of confronting peacocks support a sun, crested with lily-like leaves; between the peacocks, pillars with foliate capitals. The fleur de lis is certainly not of West European but of Persian or Byzantine origin.

It would explain why the figure is well known in the muslim world. Other specimina of this specially shaped thunderbolts can be found on buildings in Damascus which was conquered by the Caliphs in Seal of Abd el Malik AD. Archeological Museum, Istanbul. Lily on the Bab-al-Hadid gate in Damascus.

The fleur the lis of this shape was used in the 12th and 13th century Abbasid caliphate after the temporal sovereignty was regained from the Seljuqs According to Mayer, fleurs de lis are on coins of:.


That is to say that the fleur de lis was an emblem of the Egyptian rulers from about until the Ottoman conquest. Fleur de lis in Europe. Going back to the same Byzantine source the same figure occurs in relation with Charlemagne.

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Fragment of a marble arch. Early 9th century. Cortona Umbria , Academia Etrusca. In the tympanon is a square cross supported by two peacocks. The square cross supported by two peacocks is the emblem of his christian prefectoral government. Below the tails of the peacocks we notice two fleurs de lis of a somewhat reduced form. Such fleurs de lis, more resembling the 3rd century fleur de lis mentioned above are on the shield of a Carolingian warrior on this reliquiary from the valley of the Meuse.

Made by Egingardus, abbot of the St. Servatius in Maastricht, about Fulda, Landesbibliothek. Domschatz cod Bonif. The lily-topped sceptre apparently is a creation of the 10th century and it replaces a spear as the symbol of armed authority. In England the armed authority was symbolized by a sword which can be seen in the right hand of its rulers on their seals. The more recent sceptres sometimes are topped with a clearly three-dimensional version of a thunderbolt.

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The french sceptres have a fleur de lis of a flat shape and are alsmost two-dimensional. This can be seen on his statue which shows him with orb and sceptre. On his head a crown of Byzantine fashion. Almost at the same time the fleur de lis was made an ornament of the royal crown.

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This can be seen on the seal of King Robert II the Pious of France on which he is represented crowned with a crown set with fleurs de lis. From then on the lily-sceptre and the lily-crown was a common emblem of the German and the French kings. Charles IV of Luxemburg. Even when there is an interlude of four or five centuries before the fleur de lis appears on the sceptres of the Roman kings and on the shields of the French bailiff Hugues de Bastons and the french Kings, its meaning as the symbol of the armed power of a warrior protecting the integrity of the ruler was not lost.

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We only may notice that through the ages the form of the symbol was as corrupted as its name. Disclosure : The authors have no financial interest to declare in relation to the content of this article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. Published online Mar Find articles by Lynn Bourn. Find articles by Radbeh Torabi.

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    Find articles by Tim S. Find articles by Rozbeh Torabi. Find articles by Joseph Zakhary. Find articles by Oren Tessler. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Sep 8; Accepted Jan 4. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

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    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4. Summary: Perforator-free flaps, in autologous breast reconstruction, have expanded to exploit tissue available at smaller donor sites while retaining high success and low risk rates. Open in a separate window. Patient 2 A year-old woman with unilateral breast cancer who was not a candidate for bilateral DIEP flaps secondary to a previous abdominoplasty.

    Patient 2: Intraoperative skin markings in the lithotomy position. Footnotes Published online 11 March She shipped here last year for the Grade 1 Kentucky Oaks, finishing 10th. Her quest to return to that race begins in the Fleur de Lis. Unfortunately, she has not performed all that well lately, as three of the four times in which she has been off the board happened in her last three starts.

    This recent string of bad luck came after a solid win at Oaklawn Park in the Grade 3 Bayakoa Stakes, so it is hard to figure out what has gone wrong. She could easily rebound here, though, and is always one that you must respect. This filly is fun to watch, as she likes to drop to the back of the pack and make one big run at the end. Ricardo Santana, Jr.