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Both Norwich and Ipswich have won more league games at home than they have lost but the historical stats are actually quite close. For example, from 45 league fixtures at Carrow Road the current head to head sees the Canaries lead by just 20 wins to 15, with 10 stalemates. Back in the season, Norwich and Ipswich battled it out over two legs in the Championship play-off semi-finals.

The Canaries finished the regular season in third while Ipswich ended in sixth, eight points behind. Norwich beat Ipswich home and away in the Championship that season. In the first leg at Portman Road, the pair played out a tense draw. However, Paul Anderson equalised right at the very end of the first period. The game finished in a draw in Suffolk. Getting anything from the second leg was always going to be a tall order for Ipswich, but it was made an awful lot harder when Christophe Berra was sent off for a hand ball on the line just after the break — Wes Hoolahan scored from the resulting penalty.

Norwich went on to gain promotion to the Premier League by beating Middlesbrough at Wembley Stadium in the Championship play-off final. When those not from the area think about Norfolk versus Suffolk, the stereotype of two sets of farmers doing battle over who has grown the best marrow might easily jump to mind. Neither country has a particularly close relationship to sport, though the fact that Suffolk boasts both Suffolk County Cricket Club and the horse racing town of Newmarket might see many of the locals there disagree with that notion.

The main time that sport does capture the imagination of those that live in the area happens when Ipswich Town and Norwich City go up against each other in football matches. In fact, the rivalry began when they were both still amateur sides that went up against each other in the Norfolk and Suffolk League at the turn of the twentieth century.

Ipswich Town AFC was formed on the sixteenth of October , the brainchild of a local MP named Thomas Cobbold who had played football at Charterhouse School and felt that it was a good way to introduce the sport to the local area. Though they were able to organise matches against the likes of Stoke Wanderers, the club found it difficult to organise competitive games and one lost once in seventeen outings in its second season. Ipswich continued to take part in the major competitions that it was allowed to enter, winning the Suffolk Challenge Cup in The following year the football termed merged with the local Rugby Club to create Ipswich Town Football Club, though still there was no real clamour for the side to turn professional.

The first encounter with Norwich City occurred in , with Norwich winning Five years later and Ipswich Town helped to form the Southern Amateur League, but still there was a refusal to turn pro. How much might the perceived success of local rivals Norwich City have influenced the decision of those in charge of Ipswich Town to turn professional? Originally nicknamed the Citizens, the club earned its moniker of the Canaries by on account of the fact that locals were known for enjoying canary rearing.

Even the national press were using the term by and it became so widespread that the club adopted its now famous yellow and green shirts ahead of the season. As football became a more and more popular pastime in the UK, so too did interest in watching Norwich play the sport grow. They were forced to move away from Newmarket Road because of increased attendances, but the suspension of football activity because of the First World War saw the club get into increased financial difficulty and forced to go into voluntary liquidation in In , with the War over, the Football League decided to start a Third Division and Norwich City was one of the clubs that they invited to join it.

Again, whether the continued success of the Canaries was part of the reason that there was such a clamour for Ipswich Town to turn professional is a matter for some debate, but what is certain is that the Tractor Boys were invited to join the Football League in and the rivalry has grown ever since.

At the end of the campaign, for example, Ipswich Town were relegated from the First Division whilst Norwich City remained in the top-flight. The two clubs were kept apart until the Tractor Boys gained promotion into the Premier League ahead of the season, allowing hostilities to resume.

The 1952 Olympic Games, the US, and the USSR

This survey module provides an introduction to the history of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, examining the major political events and social changes that transformed the Roman world and the Near East between c. Along the way, we shall consider such topics as identity, warfare, gender, religious life, rulership and law.

Students will obtain a clear understanding of the outlines of early medieval history between the later Roman Empire and the sweeping changes of the tenth century, as well as a sense of what daily life was like for most people and of the types of evidence historians can use to understand this period. The weekly lectures guide students through the module and their readings, while seminars provide opportunities to explore key historical problems and debates in more detail through the analysis of primary sources.

This module is a survey of medieval Europe from c. It includes elements of political, institutional, religious, social and cultural history. The module is intended to provide students with a foundation that will allow them to make the most of other courses in European history, particularly those focusing on the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, by equipping them with a grounding in geography and chronology, as well as in a variety of approaches to the study of history.

Lectures will provide an overview of some of the period's defining features including the feudal system; kingship; the crusades, warfare and chivalry; popes and anti-popes ; monasticism and the coming of the friars; heresy; visual culture; women and the family; and towns and trade. This module examines the principal themes of the political, social and cultural history of Britain during the Victorian era c.

The first section of the module will focus on the impact of the Enlightenment, and revolutionary approaches to social change, in France and Russia. In the final seminars, the wider impact of revolutionary ideas, including the concept of nationalism, will be explored in a wider European context. Topics covered will include: the Enlightenment; the French revolution; Jacobinism; the Napoleonic Empire; Russia under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great; the Decembrist revolt in Russia; nationalism in Europe; the revolutions of The purpose of this module is to introduce students to the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, through a consideration of their key concepts, ideas, texts and practices such as bhakti, moksha, yoga, dharma.

The first half of the module will examine some of the most interesting features of the Vedic and post-Vedic tradition: the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the polytheism of the Mahabharata. The second half will examine the contrasting philosophical positions of the Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist traditions using materials from the Pali canon and several Sanskrit Sutras.

This course investigates the beliefs and practices of Jews and Muslims in the world today. Topics in Judaism include the life and work of the Patriarchs, the concept of the 'chosen people', the Promised Land, the Torah, synagogue, Jewish festivals and the Jewish home. This module will introduce students to discussions about the definition of religion and to some of the disciplines in which religion is studied, with special reference to the differences between Theology and Religious Studies.

Particular consideration will be given in the initial weeks to the phenomenological approach and to the efficacy of Ninian Smart's dimensions of religion. In the following weeks, the module will be focused on the comparative study of religion with reference to Eliade , the sociology of religion with reference to Durkheim, Weber and Marx and the psychology of religion with reference to Otto, James, Freud and Jung. The module will also host a study skills session to be run in conjunction with the Student Learning Advisory Service, the aim of which is to equip students with key study skills in the areas of writing essays, referencing and plagiarism-prevention.

The curriculum will be structured to introduce students to a range of key theories and debates which provide a basic framework for the social and cultural study of contemporary religion. Each session will introduce students to a particular theory or debate, using panel presentations in the seminars to get a small group to present their initial understanding and questions of relevant introductory literature. Throughout the module, students will be helped to see possible connections between these various theories and debates, as well as think about current issues to which these theories and debates might be relevant.

This module provides an historical introduction to the philosophical, religious and cultural traditions of East Asia. It will provide a foundation for understanding the historical development, key concepts and important practices of the major worldviews of East Asia with specific reference to traditions such as Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, Shinto and other animist traditions.

This module provides a cross-cultural introduction and exploration of philosophical, religious and cultural traditions which have shaped and informed historical and contemporary ethical judgements and notions of the good life. From ancient Asian, Greek, Jewish, Christian and Islamic philosophies inspired by thinkers such as the Buddha, Plato, Jesus and Mohammed, to modern secular philosophies such as humanism and Marxism, humans have articulated a variety of approaches to ethics, politics, spirituality, and the relationship of the individual to society, in many cases developing legal frameworks for the regulation of issues of ethical concern in areas such as human rights, wealth distribution, medical ethics, the environment and human sexuality.

This module provides a thematic introduction to selected topics and debates that span global philosophical, religious and cultural traditions. It will explore issues such as the nature of reality, of the self, and of goodness or value, the foundations of ethics and the ideal society, and the goals of life in a variety of worldviews. Cross-referencing cultural traditions with broader theoretical and philosophical debates, it seeks to provide a foundation for understanding key concepts and themes found within the world's traditions of philosophy and religion, and exploring their implications for fundamental debates about truth, society, psychology and the good life.

The course will begin with an examination of the methodological, conceptual and disciplinary issues that arise before exploring in critical depth the historical relationship between religion and film, with specific reference to the reception ranging from prohibition to utilisation of film by different religious groups. There will be a focus on particular categories of film and categories and models of religious and theological understanding, allowing students taking this module to develop the critical skills helpful for film interpretation and for exploring possible religious and theological approaches to film criticism.

This module will enable students to analyse and understand the development of Christian theology over the last two hundred years. We will be critically evaluating the significance and contribution of a number of leading twentieth century theologians from a variety of denominational backgrounds and endeavouring to understand to a sophisticated degree the changes in Christian thought and practice in a variety of situations in the twentieth century.

The module will begin by surveying the main strands of post-Enlightenment Christian theology, including the contributions of Kant, Schleiermacher and Feuerbach. There will be a detailed focus of two of the 'Death of God' theologians from the twentieth century, Thomas Altizer and William Hamilton. We will then critically evaluate the significance of Dietrich Bonhoeffer and his influence with particular reference to Harvey Cox and John A.

The module also involves a study of key theological movements, in particular Liberation Theology, Black Theology and Feminist Theology. The primary aims of this module are to give students a critical grounding in current cultural theories of the sacred, to provide them with opportunities to explore how these concepts relate to contemporary social and cultural phenomena, and to reflect on how this process might help us to refine cultural theories of the sacred.

The module will enable students to distinguish between ontological and cultural theories of the sacred, and will introduce them to key cultural theorists of the sacred such as Durkheim, Shils, Bellah, and Alexander.

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A range of cases will also be explored to provide students with opportunities to think about how relevant concepts might relate to specific social and cultural phenomena, and to provide a basis for the analytical work they undertake in their assessed work. Firstly, we will be exploring how different writers and groups some of them inside the Bible, some of them outside it have read the Bible as temporal or political code.

For example, the biblical book of Daniel attempts to decode the book of Jeremiah, which had already become deeply mysterious to ancient readers. Similarly, the New Testament 'deciphers' biblical prophecy and motifs by applying them to Jesus or the Roman Empire. Techniques of decryption are also built into central developments within Jewish and Christian traditions.

We will be looking at a range of examples of such developments by focusing on readers like Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, or Jewish Kabbalah. We will be exploring the contexts that produced these literatures and thinking about how to read decipher? The Bible is commonly thought of as a book that has got its story together, and a bastion of monotheism. We think of the Bible as the very opposite of the projects of Comparative Literature and Comparative Religion: one book, one literature, and one God. However, as soon as we start reading we discover a library of divergent books, literatures and gods.

The bulk of the 'books' in the Bible pre-date structures like the codex and the author. They borrow, often very explicitly, from other literatures: for example, Wisdom Literature and Proverb Collections from Egypt and Mesopotamia, Greco-Roman novels and philosophical tracts. Through a series of selected readings, students will critically engage the question of the comparative, the plural and the foreigner by looking at topics including but not limited to the question of the other, or the outside on the Bible's inside; other literatures from which the Bible borrows e.

This module will examine the theme 'Global Christianities' through the lenses of the anthropology of Christianity and the sociology of religion. We will explore the ways in which we can see Christianity as a cultural product, and how Christianity has shaped different cultures and societies globally, as well as how the religion has been shaped by and through encounters in different local settings. We will look at the history of the globalization of Christianity, and consider the historical, political and economic effects of local missionary encounters.

The course will examine the processes of conversion to Christianity in different contexts, both at the level of individual and broader social group, and how these have been understood in relation to concepts of 'modernity'. The course will draw attention to the relatively recent emergence of the anthropology of Christianity in relation to the broader disciplines of anthropology as a discrete area of study and how this relates to the study of Christianity as a global phenomenon within sociology. We will consider the ways in which these disciplines have constructed and objectified 'religion' as an object of study in ways that have historically occluded the social scientific study of Christianity in different global contexts.

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The course will address some of the main debates in the anthropology of Christianity, deepening understanding of global Christianities through exploring studies of Christian cultures in diverse ethnographic contexts. The topics addressed may include: culture and conversion; globalization and localisation; interrelations between Christianity, subjectivity and language; embodied and emotional forms of different Christianities; concepts and experiences of God; mediation, immanence and transcendence; coherence and fragmentation; gender, sexuality and the family.

Through engaging with readings on these areas, we will explore the socio-religious power-dynamics of Christianity in relation to both culturally dominant and marginal traditions. This module explores the cultural specificity and diversity of Asian cultures, traditions, social and political systems and literature from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.

This module explores the cultural specificity and diversity of Japanese culture, traditions, social and political systems and literature from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. This module provides an introduction to the theoretical, methodological and socio-political issues pertaining to the cross-cultural and comparative study of philosophies, ideas, worldviews and religions. It will introduce and explore theoretical frameworks and methodological questions related to the translation and representation of ideas, texts and worldviews as explored by different theories of interpretation.

Questions to be explored in this module would normally include: how does one determine the meaning of a text? What hermeneutic, ethical and political issues arise when translating a concept, idea or practice from one linguistic, cultural or historical context into another? What are the challenges and pitfalls of comparative analysis? How do ideas, texts and forms of identity take on new meanings in the global circulation of ideas, practices and people? The module will chart the evolution of contemporary British foreign policy.


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It begins firmly in the era of pre-First World War diplomacy, and examines the legacy of Britain's role in nineteenth century international relations, including the role of empire. The module will explore the nature of the old and new diplomacy as well as issues relating to foreign policy formation.

It will include an evaluation of the role of diplomats and the work and operation of the Foreign Office. It will also include a discussion of the main themes and issues of Britain's relations with all of the major European powers from , including the origins of the two world wars, the connection between foreign policy and political ideology. The module will also examine Britain's relations with the United States during this period and with the Far East, especially with Japan. No previous war matched it in scale and brutality.

The military history and the course of events have been told many times. This course, by contrast, focuses on the social and cultural upheavals of the Great War. The aim is to move beyond narrow military history and examine the war's socio-cultural impact on British and European societies. Furthermore, it hopes to overcome historians' fixation with national histories. The First World War was, by definition, a transnational event and this course will fully explore the comparative method. How it reacted to the crushing defeats of in France and in the Far East before transforming itself into a war-winning force.

The course will begin with the inter-war army examining its lack of doctrine and the confused role it had in British and imperial defence plans. From there it will move on to examine the transformation of the army from a pre-war small professional outfit to a vast conscript army, before concluding on the situation in , the retention of peacetime conscription and adaptation to the Cold War world.

It will take a broad approach to military history, studying the political, economic and cultural realities behind the force. This module is meant to introduce students to the key processes and dynamics of sub-Saharan African history during the past two centuries. The course covers three chronological periods: the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial eras. In their study of the pre-colonial period students, will especially familiarize themselves with the changing nature of African slavery and the nineteenth-century reconstruction of political authority in the face of economic, environmental and military challenges.

The colonial period forms the second section of the course. Here, students will gain an understanding of the modalities of the colonial conquest, the creation and operation of colonial economies and the socio-cultural engineering brought about by European rule. The study of the colonial period will end with an analysis of African nationalisms and decolonisation.

In the final part of the course, students will develop an understanding of the challenges faced by independent African nations. Society has always been fascinated by those deemed different and over time, unusual people have been viewed and constructed in a myriad of ways. The course explores the continuities and changes surrounding those classed as different.

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Broadly, the course will investigate the changing nature of difference from the s to the s. It will examine the body and mind as contested sites; spaces occupied by those considered different; the establishment of normality versus deviance; the changing conceptions of difference over time; relationships between unusual people and the wider society. Using a broad range of sources, from novels to film, the course will trace the shifting cultural constructions of difference.

This module will offer a comparative study of the armies of the Great Powers during the First World War. This module will therefore seek to answer some of the key questions of the Great War: how did the Great Powers manage to raise and sustain such large armies, why did soldiers continue to fight, given the appalling casualty rates; how politicised were the armies of the Great War, why were politicians allowed to embark on foolhardy military adventures, how crucial were the Americans in securing Entente victory and how effectively were economies adapted to meet the demands of the armies?

Comparative topics for discussion in seminars will include; planning for war, recruitment and conscription, the officer corps, generals and politicians, discipline and morale; and attitudes to technological advances. Focusing on the history of modern Germany in the Twentieth Century, the module examines major changes and continuities in the development of a highly advanced, industrialised but also militarised European nation state which played a central role in shaping the modern European geographical and political landscape.

The module explores the end of the Imperial Monarchy after the end of the First World War in , the role of the Allied reparation demands, hyper-inflation and political instability of the Weimar Republic, and the rise of National Socialism and the Third Reich during the s. The course will chart the influence of anti-Semitism, racial eugenics and geopolitics in Germany's quest for world domination during the Second World War and assess the legacy of the Holocaust in defining post-war German identity and society.

By examining the Federal Republic of Germany FRG and the German Democratic Republic GDR , the module will take a critical look at the politics, ideology and day-to-day history Alltagsgeschichte of East and West German society during the Cold War, and explore the underlying factors which led to the fall of the Berlin wall in and subsequent German reunification. This course is all about putting History 'in its place', in other words, examining the history of modern Britain through the analytical lens of environmental history and exploring the ways humans have used, adapted, and imagined various environments over time.

Taking as its starting point, it looks at major transformations in British life — the social and ecological problems of the Victorian city; changing attitudes towards nature preservation; empire and ecological imperialism; war, chemicals and modernity; environmental revolutions and radical protest - to chart the ways in which successive generations interacted in meaningful ways with the spaces and other species around them.

This is a story both of material changes and of cultural values — our interactions with and our imaginations of the modern world. Accordingly, themes of urbanisation, politics and environmental change; health, medicine and wellbeing; national identity, gender and cultural life will be explored through a series of case studies that take in such topics as 'Miasma and Manure: Public health in 19th century London' and 'Ban the Bomb: the Cold War, nuclear technology and popular protest. Between the founding of the republic and the middle decades of the nineteenth century, the United States came of age.

The nation's population increased tenfold; its territory more than doubled. Driven by the high-minded ideals out of which the country had been founded, and the restless energy that saw a nation of thirteen colonies grow into a territorial republic of immense size, the United States became a symbol of a tumultuous century. In time, however, the republic would become a casualty of its own success.


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As the s wore on, a battle over slavery and its place in a rapidly changing nation unraveled into sectional conflict, secession, civil war and a decade's long struggle after the war ended. The result was the largest forced emancipation of slaves in world history, and a conflict of barely calculable carnage. For better and for worse, the Civil War and its aftermath would become the great crucible into which a modern United States was born. This module surveys the origins, conflicts and outcomes of the Civil War by not only understanding how the war altered the United States but understanding the Civil War and its aftermath in a broader context.

Students will examine the causes and consequences of the conflict, by looking backwards to the roots of sectionalism and secession, and forwards into the postwar period, known as Reconstruction. The purpose of this module is to understand how all of these historical forces sowed the seeds of the republic's demise, while at the same time examining what kind of new nation Americans created in the ashes of the old one.

Out of the war would come not only a new nation, but a fundamentally different United States. The violent collapse of slavery and the destruction of the plantation system brought profound change and innumerable conflicts, long after the South capitulated and two national armies laid down their weapons. In the wake of the war, Americans would attempt to construct a new republic, born as Abraham Lincoln urged in , out of a 'new birth of freedom.

Often described as the 'Jewel in the Crown', British India played a key role economic, strategic, military in the expansion and consolidation of British Empire. In the 18th century India had been a territory held by the English East India Company; by the midth century India became a crown colony and an integral part of the British Empire for reasons that included both resources and a role in enhancing imperial prestige.

Focusing mainly on the nineteenth century, this module explores the processes through which India became a colony and its broader impact on the British Empire. More specifically, the purpose of the module is to impart in students a critical understanding of the relationship between India and the British Empire, especially the ways in which India influenced imperial policies social, economic in both metropolitan Britain and in the wider British dominions and colonies.

In short, this module offers a survey of the complex, long and historically consequential relation between India and the British Empire.

Between and Britain engaged in only one European war. The Empire was, therefore, the most consistent and most continuous influence in shaping the army as an institution and moulding public opinion of the army. The central focus will be on the campaigning in Africa and India, exploring how a relatively small number of British soldiers managed to gain and retain control of such vast territories and populations.

Through an examination of a wide range of literary and visual primary sources, the module will also explore how the imperial soldier specifically and imperial campaigning generally were presented to and reconfigured by a domestic audience. Cultures never develop and grow in isolation. They are built on the values of past generations, and they are shaped and challenged in interaction with other cultures. The main objective of this module is to explore and present the powerful interaction between Europe and the Islamic world in early modern times, c.

The course will firstly provide an overview of the rise and fall of three major Islamic states and empires the Abbasid Caliphate, the Safavid Empire, the Ottoman Empire. It will then assess the early modern European encounter with the Islamic world 1 by discussing the scholarly, religious, political and economic incentives for this encounter; 2 by documenting the exchange of knowledge, ideas, values and material objects this encounter stimulated in the early modern period; 3 by exploring the enormous impact, which this encounter had on European civilization.

The course will focus on the following topics and areas of life:. The French Revolution continues rightly to be regarded as one the great turning points of modern European History. This course will introduce students to the political, social and economic context of France from the accession of Louis XVI to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. It will explore and assess the divergent interpretations for the origins of the revolutionary conflagration of There will also be an attempt to understand how a revolution based on the triad 'liberty, equally and fraternity,' lost of sight of its humanitarian aspirations and quickly descended into fratricidal political terror and warfare on a trans-European scale.

Students will also be encouraged to cast a critical eye on the vexed question of the French Revolution's contribution to modern political culture. How common was trial by combat in medieval society? Why did individuals sometimes voluntarily enter slavery? What could a woman do if she wished to divorce her husband? These are the kinds of questions students will consider in this module on law and order in early medieval Europe.

Legal texts are among the most voluminous sources to have survived from the early Middle Ages, providing fascinating perspectives on government and the reach of the state, dispute settlement, courts and trials, social relations, literacy, the influence of the Church and more. While the bulk of our material comes from Merovingian and Carolingian Francia, we shall also consider evidence from other regions, including the Byzantine world, Anglo-Saxon England and Visigothic Spain.

Different types of legal records will be studied in order to learn how early medieval societies were regulated and how rulers attempted to govern their realms. By examining law, custom and justice in theory and in practice, students will gain an appreciation for the ideals of early medieval law and government, as well as the thornier realities of its operation in society at large. This module covers fundamental transformations taking place in European society between c. It focuses specifically on the everyday experiences of early modern Europeans, and how these changed as a result of, amongst others, global expansion, encounters with 'others', religious change, urbanisation and a innovation proliferation of new goods.

Through looking at how these transformations affected the micro-level of men and women in their daily lives, this module aims to give insight into the ever-changing lives of Europeans before the onset of 'modernisation' in the 19th century. Themes that will be addressed in the lectures and seminars include ethnic and religious diversity, gender, the individual, witchcraft and material culture. The diplomatic relationship between Britain and France in the first half of the twentieth century can be seen as a marriage of convenience.

Not natural historical allies, the British and French governments were forced increasingly to work together to combat the tensions in Europe that led to the outbreak of the First and Second World Wars. This module explores the love-hate relationship between the two countries in tracing the origins of the Entente Cordiale, and by addressing some of the major historiographical debates in twentieth century international history. Lectures will provide students with an overview of these debates and the topics listed below, and seminars will encourage students to consider their understanding of these areas and critically engage with them through discussion.

Stenton, for example, considered it likely that Merewalh was a representative of a local dynasty that continued to rule under Mercian domination. In , [1] Penda invaded Bernicia with a large army, reported to have been 30 warbands, with 30 royal or noble commanders duces regii , as Bede called them , including rulers such as Cadafael ap Cynfeddw of Gwynedd and Aethelhere of East Anglia. Penda also enjoyed the support of Aethelwald , the king of Deira and the successor of Oswine, who had been murdered on Oswiu's orders in ; [62] Bede says Aethelwald acted as Penda's guide during his invasion.

The cause of this war is uncertain. On the other hand, it has been argued that an issue of punctuation in later manuscripts confused Bede's meaning on this point, and that he in fact meant to refer to Penda as being responsible for the war. A perception of the conflict in terms of the political situation between Bernicia and Deira could help to explain the role of Aethelwald of Deira in the war, since Aethelwald was the son of Oswald and might not ordinarily be expected to ally with those who had killed his father.

Perhaps, as the son of Oswald, he sought to obtain the Bernician kingship for himself. According to the Historia Brittonum , Penda besieged Oswiu at Iudeu; [21] this site has been identified with Stirling , in the north of Oswiu's kingdom. Additionally, according to Bede, Oswiu's son Ecgfrith was being held hostage "at the court of Queen Cynwise , in the province of the Mercians" [67] —perhaps surrendered by Oswiu as part of some negotiations or arrangement.

It would seem that Penda's army then moved back south, perhaps returning home, [68] but a great battle was fought near the river Winwaed in the region of Loidis , thought to be somewhere in the area around modern day Leeds , on a date given by Bede as 15 November. The identification of the Winwaed with a modern river is uncertain, but possibly it was a tributary of the Humber. There is good reason to believe it may well have been the river now known as Cock Beck in the ancient kingdom of Elmet.

The Cock Beck meanders its way through Pendas Fields , close to an ancient well known as Pen Well on the outskirts of Leeds, before eventually joining the River Wharfe. This same Cock Beck whilst in flood also played a significant role in the much later Battle of Towton in Another possibility is the River Went a tributary of the River Don, situated to the north of modern-day Doncaster. It may be that Penda's army was attacked by Oswiu at a point of strategic vulnerability, which would help explain Oswiu's victory over forces that were, according to Bede, much larger than his own.

The Mercian force was also weakened by desertions. According to the Historia Brittonum , Cadafael of Gwynedd, "rising up in the night, escaped together with his army" thus earning him the name Cadomedd , or "battle-shirker" , [21] and Bede says that at the time of the battle, Aethelwald of Deira withdrew and "awaited the outcome from a place of safety". It may also be that the allies had different purposes in the war, and Kirby suggested that Penda's deserting allies may have been dissatisfied "with what had been achieved at Iudeu ". Bede says that Penda's "thirty commanders, and those who had come to his assistance were put to flight, and almost all of them slain," and that more drowned while fleeing than were killed in the actual battle.

He also says that Penda's head was cut off; a connection between this and the treatment of Oswald's body at Maserfield is possible. With the defeat at the Winwaed, Oswiu came to briefly dominate Mercia, permitting Penda's son Peada to rule its southern portion. The period of rule by Penda's descendants came to an end with his grandson Ceolred 's death in , after which power passed to descendants of Eowa for most of the remainder of the 8th century.

Penda's reign is significant in that it marks an emergence from the obscurity of Mercia during the time of his predecessors, both in terms of the power of the Mercians relative to the surrounding peoples and in terms of our historical awareness of them. While our understanding of Penda's reign is quite unclear, and even the very notable and decisive battles he fought are surrounded by historical confusion, for the first time a general outline of important events regarding the Mercians becomes realistically possible.

Furthermore, Penda was certainly of great importance to the development of the Mercian kingdom; it has been said that his reign was "crucial to the consolidation and expansion of Mercia". It has been claimed that the hostility of Bede has obscured Penda's importance as a ruler who wielded an imperium similar to that of other prominent 7th century 'overkings'. Penda's hegemony included lesser rulers of both Anglo-Saxon and British origins, non-Christian and Christian alike. The relationships between Penda, as hegemon, and his subordinate rulers would have been based on personal as well as political ties, and they would often have been reinforced by dynastic marriages.

It has been asserted that Penda's court would have been cosmopolitan, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and tolerant. Though a pagan himself, there is evidence that the contemporary Mercian elite contained significant Christian and British elements. Penda must have been intimate with many Britons and may have been bilingual himself. Penda was the last great pagan warrior-king among the Anglo-Saxons. Higham wrote that "his destruction sounded the death-knell of English paganism as a political ideology and public religion.

His daughters Cyneburh and Cyneswith became Christian and were saintly figures who according to some accounts retained their virginity through their marriages. There was purportedly even an infant grandson of Penda named Rumwold who lived a saintly three-day life of fervent preaching. What is known about Penda is primarily derived from the history written by the Northumbrian Bede, a priest not inclined to objectively portray a pagan Mercian who engaged in fierce conflict with Christian kings, and in particular with Northumbrian rulers.

Indeed, Penda has been described as "the villain of Bede's third book" of the Historia Ecclesiastica. According to Stenton, had it not been for Penda's resistance, "a loosely compacted kingdom of England under Northumbrian rule would probably have been established by the middle of the seventh century.

He was himself a great fighting king of the kind most honoured in Germanic saga; the lord of many princes, and the leader of a vast retinue attracted to his service by his success and generosity. Many stories must have been told about his dealings with other kings, but none of them have survived; his wars can only be described from the standpoint of his enemies From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other people named Penda, see Penda given name. Main article: Battle of Hatfield Chase. Main article: Battle of Maserfield. Main article: Battle of the Winwaed. Bede also gives the year as and specifies a date, 15 November. Poole Studies in Chronology and History , put forward the theory that Bede began his year in September, and consequently November would actually fall in ; Frank Stenton also dated events accordingly in his Anglo-Saxon England Wood, "Bede's Northumbrian dates again".

The historian D. Kirby suggested the year as a possibility, alongside , in case the dates given by Bede are off by one year see Kirby's "Bede and Northumbrian Chronology", The Annales Cambriae gives the year as Kirby suggested that the year may have actually been , accounting for the possibility that Bede's dates are one year early see Note 1.